History

First president of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad ordered for establishing biggest ever civilian award Bharat Ratna on January 2, 1954. Concept of awarding this award posthumously was not there in the original statute declared in January 1954...

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Key Points

Soon after the award was established its original concept followed presenting a circular gold medal that would have state emblem and motto and rest aspects as decided thereafter. Factors including concrete decision about design to choose...

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Diputes

Posthumous Bharat Ratna award to the Indian freedom fighter Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in 1992 came into news for typical reasons. A Public Interest Litigation stalled everything and the award was forced to be withdrawn thereafter...

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Bharat Ratna Awardees

Name Birth / death Awar- ded Notes State / Country
1. Chakravarti Rajgopalachari 1878–1972 1954 Independence activist, last Governor-General Tamil
Nadu
2. C. V. Raman 1888–1970 1954 Physicist Tamil
Nadu
3. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 1888–1975 1954 Philosopher, second President Andhra Pradesh
4. Bhagwan Das 1869–1958 1955 Independence activist, author Uttar Pradesh
5. Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya 1861–1962 1955 Civil engineer, Diwan of Mysore Karnataka
6. Jawaharlal Nehru 1889–1964 1955 Independence activist, author, first Prime MinisterP Uttar Pradesh
7. Govind Ballabh Pant 1887–1961 1957 Independence activist, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Home Minister Uttar Pradesh
8. Dhondo Keshav Karve 1858–1962 1958 Educator, social reformer Maha- rashtra
9. Bidhan Chandra Roy 1882–1962 1961 Physician, Chief Minister of West Bengal West Bengal
10. Purushottam Das Tandon 1882–1962 1961 Independence activist, educator Uttar Pradesh
11. Rajendra Prasad 1884-1963 1962 Independence activist, jurist, first President Bihar
12. Zakir Hussain 1897–1969 1963 Scholar, third President Andhra Pradesh
13. Pandurang Vaman Kane 1880–1972 1963 Indologist and Sanskrit scholar Maha- rashtra
14. Lal Bahadur Shastri 1904–1966 1966 Posthumous, independence activist, second Prime Minister Uttar Pradesh
15. Indira Gandhi 1917–1984 1971 Third Prime Minister Uttar Pradesh
16. V. V. Giri 1894–1980 1975 Trade unionist and fourth President orissa
17. K. Kamaraj 1903–1975 1976 Posthumous, independence activist, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu State Tamil
Nadu
18. Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa of Calcutta) 1910–1997 1980 Catholic nun, founder of the Missionaries of Charity West Bengal / Albania
19. Vinoba Bhave 1895–1982 1983 Posthumous, social reformer, independence activist Maha- rashtra
20. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan 1890–1988 1987 First non-citizen, independence activist Pakistan
21. M. G. Ramachandran 1917–1987 1988 Posthumous, film actor, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu Tamil
Nadu
22. B. R. Ambedkar 1891–1956 1990 Posthumous, chief architect of the Indian Constitution, politician, economist, and scholar Madhya Pradesh
23. Nelson Mandela b. 1918 1990 Second non-citizen and first non-Indian recipient, Leader of the Anti-Apartheid movement south Africa
24. Rajiv Gandhi 1944–1991 1991 Posthumous, Sixth Prime Minister New Delhi
25. Vallabhbhai Patel 1875–1950 1991 Posthumous, independence activist, first Home Minister Maha- rashtra
26. Morarji Desai 1896–1995 1991 Independence activist, fourth Prime Minister New Delhi
27. Abul Kalam Azad 1888–1958 1992 Posthumous, independence activist, first Minister of Education Saudi Arabia
28. J. R. D. Tata 1904–1993 1992 Industrialist and philanthropist France
29. Satyajit Ray 1922–1992 1992 Bengali filmmaker west Bengal
30. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam b. 1931 1997 Aeronautical Engineer,11th President of India Tamil
Nadu
31. Gulzarilal Nanda 1898–1998 1997 Independence activist, interim Prime Minister New Delhi
32. Aruna Asaf Ali 1908–1996 1997 Posthumous, independence activist Punjab
33. M. S. Subbulakshmi 1916–2004 1998 Carnatic classical singer Tamil
Nadu
34. Chidambaram Subramaniam 1910–2000 1998 Independence activist, Minister of Agriculture Tamil
Nadu
35. Jayaprakash Narayan 1902–1979 1999 Posthumous, independence activist and politician Bihar
36. Pandit Ravi Shankar 1920-2012 1999 Sitar player Uttar Pradesh
37. Amartya Sen b. 1933 1999 Economist, Nobel Laureate West Bengal
38. Gopinath Bordoloi 1890–1950 1999 Posthumous, independence activist, Chief Minister of Assam Assam
39. Lata Mangeshkar b. 1929 2001 Playback singer Madhya Pradesh
40. Ustad Bismillah Khan 1916–2006 2001 Hindustani classical shehnai player Uttar Pradesh
41. Pandit Bhimsen Joshi 1922–2011 2008 Hindustani classical singer Karnataka

Foreign Recipients

Nelson Mandela                   1990

Posthumously Awarded

Lal Bahadur Shastri              1966

K. Kamaraj                          1976

Vinoba Bhave                      1983

M. G. Ramachandran           1988

B. R. Ambedkar                   1990

Rajiv Gandhi                        1991      

Vallabhbhai Patel                1991

Abul Kalam Azad                1992

Aruna Asaf Ali                    1997

Jayaprakash Narayan         1999

Gopinath Bordoloi              1999